Last updated: May 7, 2018

Dateline: Andorra la Vella, Andorra

It would take you at least 20 years to get citizenship here in Andorra. Here, where residency rules are relatively straightforward, naturalization is extremely tough to come by. In fact, it’s one of the most grueling naturalization timelines on earth, behind only San Marino and Liechtenstein.

Spain, where I’ve been spending the month, isn’t much better at 10 years, plus four more for bureaucracy. For those who want a fast second passport, there are only two options: be lucky enough to have certain European lineage, or fork over some cash.

Citizenship by investment is a process whereby wealthy individuals can obtain a second citizenship extremely quickly in exchange for an investment or donation. These so-called “economic citizenships” are largely valuable to three types of people:

  • US citizens who wish to quickly renounce their citizenship. Pragmatically, renunciation requires a second passport, and if you’re a high-earner, the cost of an economic citizenship might be far less than the tax and compliance costs of remaining American, particularly as tax laws have recently become even worse for business owners overseas.
  • Emerging world citizens losing opportunities. Chinese and Arab citizens are the largest investors in citizenship by investment programs. The wealthy in these and other countries can afford the cost in exchange for the greatly increased travel benefits.
  • Business owners and investors looking for a “Plan B”. While US citizens have the most immediate need for a second passport and can often earn an immediate ROI, other country’s citizens can also benefit from having another citizenship in their back pocket… just in case. This is especially true for cryptocurrency investors who may need a second passport to continue their investments. If you’re earning high six- or seven-figures, you may find buying citizenship easier than the longer, more elusive naturalization route.

There are also nationalities that are restricted from doing business in certain countries and would benefit from a quick passport for business opportunities. Israelis, who are banned from about a dozen countries, are an example of this.

Before we cover the best countries, let’s establish a few definitions…

What makes the “best” citizenship?

As perhaps the only person who covers the second citizenship scene to have actually been through three CBI processes personally, I feel uniquely qualified to speak on this subject.

Many people feel that the number of countries a passport allows you to visit defines the quality of that passport. As a former US citizen, I grew up with the notion that it was possible to fly just about anywhere in the world without worrying about visas. The idea of potentially giving up your home country’s passport can be scary and can lead to focus on the travel privileges that come with your new passport.

I and other industry experts, however, believe that a passport is not defined by its travel privileges alone. If it was, the United States would have among the world’s best citizenships, and no one would be calling me asking for help renouncing their US citizenship.

In fact, I created the Nomad Passport Index to rank countries on the quality of their citizenship, and not just their passport. Being a US citizen with a huge tax burden is inferior, in my mind, to being a Saint Lucian and Montenegrin citizen who occasionally needs to get a visa, but has far more personal and financial freedom.

For one thing, you should consider which countries you actually want to travel to, and whether a second citizenship would allow you to travel there. If you need to visit Russia for business, there are three CBI programs that offer such visa-free travel, and the fact that you might give up visa-free travel to the Congo wouldn’t matter nearly as much.

If you’re a western citizen, the deep discount of Caribbean programs over European Union citizenship programs can be quite appealing. While many Chinese, Arabs, Russians, and Indians may prefer an EU passport, westerners such as myself realize that “Tier B” passports (with good, but not great, travel privileges) are the wave of the future and not only cost less, but come without the baggage of a crumbling bloc of mostly socialist countries.

In my mind, the best citizenship by investment program is one that allows you to intelligently preserve your capital while accomplishing your goals.

When I renounced US citizenship, I had a few fellow passport geeks who poked me about my newfound inability to visit the Central African Republic without first getting a visa. The idea of losing a few visa-free countries or access to US embassies may sound annoying, but in reality I’ve seen no downsides yet.

In short, make sure your bases are covered, but don’t overspend or become obsessed with shiny objects that don’t matter.

Residency vs. citizenship by investment

If you’re not a US citizen, you are less likely to need a second passport in order to reduce your tax obligations. For you, a second residency and/or tax residency may do the trick. However, I do think having a second passport is worthwhile for anyone doing business or investing, particularly cryptocurrency investors as new laws unfold all around the world.

To be clear, economic citizenship is for people with a pressing need to have another passport now, be it for tax reasons, business, or travel.

Residency by investment is not the same as citizenship by investment. Golden Visa programs like those in Portugal and Greece will eventually yield a second passport, but it will take at least six years.

Other countries like Panama offer a Friendly Nations Visa that streamlines residency requirements, but also requires years for naturalization… and has no 100% guarantee of paying off in the end.

These second residency programs are great for tax residency or for a future Plan B passport, but they are merely creating yet another path to residency, with citizenship being the future benefit of residency.

Now, let’s get started…

The Best Citizenship by Investment programs

For me to consider a program to be “citizenship by investment”, it needs to meet a few criteria:

First, it must be relatively fast; Malta is the only program on this list that takes more than several months.

Second, it must be commoditized. That means that everyone can take part. Austria is sometimes touted as an economic citizenship program, but it’s really a highly theoretical “exceptional citizenship” program in which those who don’t look Austrian need not apply. It’s also highly subject to political whims.

Third, the program should be structured. That means fixed investment amounts and a clear path to citizenship. CBI programs operate almost like a business; any country that offers a murky path to a second passport most likely falls under another category.

Lastly, it must be legal. That seems obvious, but I’ve come across plenty of economic passport scams.

Now, let’s compare the countries offering legitimate citizenship by investment…


The best citizenship by investment programs

Cyprus is the most expensive citizenship available for sale today and offers fast processing times but the prospect of increased bureaucracy coming.

Cyprus is a member of the European Union and, until recently, offered the fastest naturalization I’ve ever heard of: just 57 days. I visited Cyprus awhile ago and published a video discussing Cyprus citizenship.

There are constant rumblings that the process will start to take longer though, particularly as the EU cracks down. Cyprus’ saving grace so far has been that while it enjoys visa-free travel to all of Europe, it is not actually a part of Europe’s borderless Schengen Area.

You can obtain Cyprus citizenship with an investment of €2 million in real estate, government bonds, a bank deposit in a Cyprus bank, or investment in a new company; this amount was most recently reduced in late 2016.

Cyprus citizenship was always pricier than other options – at one point costing well into the eight figures – but unlike most other programs, you can invest rather than donate. If return of your capital is important, Cyprus may be more attractive than the only other EU citizenship program in Malta.

There’s a bit of a catch, though: you must own a €500,000 home in Cyprus forever. The requirement to maintain a residence on the island is likely a hat-tip to foreign government demands for investors to maintain a “real presence” on the island rather than simply buying a Cypriot passport. It’s not entirely clear what would happen if you sold your property, but the law is indeed clear at least on paper.

As of late, some Cypriot cities have become hot destinations for development. Limassol – dubbed “Moscow on the Mediterranean”, now sports more skyscrapers than almost any other European seaside as a result of passport investment.

Oh, and one more caveat: your home purchases are subject to VAT, meaning you will end up paying “sunk costs” even though your qualification is technically an investment. Whether you can recoup that 5% to 19% later will be determined by the market.

VERDICT: Cyprus offers EU citizenship, but isn’t part of Schengen and its passport can’t get you into the United States. If you were planning to start a low-tax company with seven figures or buy a luxury seaside villa, it’s worth considering. Otherwise, skip it.


The best citizenship by investment programs

Getting Maltese citizenship relatively quickly is possible, but not before you’re ready to pay close to a million Euros to make it happen.

Unlike Maltese residency which is a more simple process (especially with Global Resident Programme), there’s a lot of conflicting information out there about how to get Maltese citizenship, partially due to some earlier vagueness from the government.

Malta is the only citizenship by investment program that sells access to both the European Union AND the borderless Schengen Area. It’s also the only passport that offers visa-free access to all six big English-speaking countries, including the United States.

Considering that, Malta is almost immediately a better deal than Cyprus for many people, particularly if you’d rather donate a much lesser amount and invest the difference.

Unlike Cyprus, Malta requires a government donation in addition to the typical fees present with all programs. The donation is €650,000 for the main applicant, plus €25,000 for a spouse and each minor child. Adult children up to 25 years old and dependent parents may be added for an additional €50,000 fee per person.

In addition to the donation, you must also invest €150,000 in Maltese government bonds — or occasionally Maltese stocks — for a period of five years. Lastly, you must purchase a home on the main island for €350,000 or more, or rent or enter a five-year lease for at least €16,000 per year. And you actually need to spend some time there while it takes about 15 months to issue your Malta passport.

VERDICT: I’m not bullish on Maltese real estate, but I’m not running for the hills, either. If you can comfortably kiss €650,000 goodbye, this is a great program that covers all of the bases.

Now, let’s move out of Europe and into the Americas, namely the Caribbean…

St. Kitts and Nevis

The best citizenship by investment programs

In St. Kitts and Nevis, you can either invest or donate money to the government, but you can be sure that simply donating the money will make the process easier.

St. Kitts and Nevis runs the original economic passport program, in operation since I was born in 1984. Other Caribbean programs have copied it, and the program has enjoyed a lot of success up until now. The two-island nation likes to refer to itself as the “platinum” citizenship program in the region.

The requirements have always been simple: you can donate money to a government development fund, or you can buy “approved” real estate. The donation is almost always the better option, as the real estate is vastly over-priced and, as some clients have told me, not even very nice.

Until recently, the donation option started at $250,000 and went up from there. Then hurricanes hit, and St. Kitts rolled out a controversial Hurricane Relief Fund which slashed the price and allowed family members to come for free. The Hurricane Relief Fund is no longer available, but the donation now starts at $150,000.

The real estate investment is $200,000 and up, and there are many providers ready to sell you everything from a shack to a timeshare in a five-star hotel. You can technically re-sell it in several years, but likely won’t get your money back. The real estate option involves extra government fees.

St. Kitts has a few perks: it offers a rush option to get approval within 45 days if you have a valid reason to request such a thing, and as of recently it offers visa-free travel to Russia.

VERDICT: St. Kitts and Nevis used to be the only game in town, but it has lost its luster since losing visa-free access to Canada in 2014. They’ve taken efforts to correct their pricing due to recent price wars, but it’s still intentionally overpriced.


The best citizenship by investment programs

The quality of Dominica passport has improved significantly over the last couple of years, not to mention that the great price of its citizenship made it stand out even more.

Dominica was the lowest-priced passport “for sale” on earth, ever since Belize ended its $40,000 program years ago. It just goes to show you that passport prices are going up very quickly.

Dominica now has competition at the $100,000 price point, but it does have a longer track record to speak for it. However, its passport’s travel privileges are rather similar to those of St. Kitts and Nevis with the exception of Russia.

Dominica does require economic citizens to speak “basic English”, which I believe is pretty straightforward. After all, you’re reading this. If you are a citizen of Afghanistan, Iraq, North Korea, Pakistan, Russia, Sao Tome Principe, Saudi Arabia, Somalia, Sudan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, or Yemen, you’ll be subject to special scrutiny.

VERDICT: If you’re seeking a “budget passport”, Dominica is worth considering. I consider it for budget-conscious people I help, but it is no longer the only game in town.


Grenada used to have a citizenship program, but cancelled it. One unconfirmed report indicated that the government had to be bullied into re-issuing economic citizens’ passports after they expired five years later. Now, Grenada is back.

Grenada’s most interesting features are visa-free access to Russia and China, as well as being the only Caribbean CBI to be part of the United States E-2 treaty program. Basically, it offers a simplified procedure to live part-time in the US as a business owner, and that makes it rather attractive to many people.

Grenada allows you to make a (newly reduced) donation of $150,000 for a single person or $200,000 for a married couple in exchange for citizenship. You can also buy $350,000 worth of approved real estate, of which there are actually a few interesting options that effectively serve as zero-coupon bonds.

VERDICT: Grenada does charge a premium, but you may find the extra investment worth it for access to China, Russia, and the United States. However, I would suggest that anyone getting an economic citizenship consider getting a “real” second passport as well, and that other passport might also offer those benefits, make Grenada redundant.

Antigua and Barbuda

The best citizenship by investment programs

Antiguan passport might not be the best option for you if you wish to travel to Canada visa-free.

Antigua started its citizenship program in 2012 with a unique requirement: citizens must live there for 35 days out of the first five years. That requirement isn’t exactly tough, as you could knock it out with a month-long vacation to celebrate your new passport, but it is a requirement nonetheless. I do think this will be a trend, although Antigua has since reduced the requirement to a mere five days.

Antigua’s investment options are pretty standard fare for Caribbean passports and range from a $125,000 donation to the government to a $400,000 real estate investment to a $1.5 million business investment. The only interesting alternative is that you can invest only $400,000 into a business if join a group with other applicants investing at least $5 million collectively.

Antigua joined the recent price wars, slashing its price to match Dominica and St. Lucia, but adding an additional processing fee. The interesting angle, however, was that a family of four could apply for the same price as a single applicant, making it the cheapest option for families. I once joked on social media that I wanted to get married just to get two-for-one Antigua passports.

Antigua is an interesting budget option with several investment options, but it has been leveled by also losing visa-free access to Canada, just as St. Kitts did earlier. Antigua is the only Caribbean CBI to offer visa-free travel to South Africa, but that’s about it.

VERDICT: Antigua and Barbuda offers more options for investing, but it really depends on whether you’re single or married to determine whether it’s the best value for you.

St. Lucia

The best citizenship by investment programs

St. Lucia citizenship program has been all the rage recently, and for all the good reasons.

Full disclosure: I am an economic citizen of St. Lucia. That doesn’t mean it’s the right program for you, but I have been happy with my experience with them.

St. Lucia offers the newest citizenship program in the Caribbean, and their requirements were originally a bit more stringent. While St. Lucia originally required you to have a net worth of at least $3 million, they dropped that requirement in 2017. They also dropped the required donation for citizenship significantly, with the donation option now costing a mere $100,000 – the same as Dominica.

The best option in most Caribbean passport programs is to make a donation, although St. Lucia also allows you to invest in real estate or start a business. If you choose the donation route, the amount for a single applicant has been lowered to a mere $100,000 as of 2018. St. Lucia also promised to speed up its processing.

St. Lucia offers a few benefits for families, namely that the donations and fees are reasonable, and that they allow dependent parents to be included in the application. Historically, the easiest way to become a St. Lucian citizen was to invest $500,000 in government bonds, which must be held for five years.

If you prefer to purchase real estate, the minimum is a mere $300,000. Again, I generally recommend avoiding such “approved real estate”. I also recommend against the business investment option that requires $3.5 million and the creation of three jobs; qualified entrepreneurs could find better countries to give them citizenship with that kind of investment.

VERDICT: Now that St. Lucia has reduced its donation to a mere $100,000, it’s a worthy competitor to Dominica for value-conscious westerners who want a passport further off the radar for its economic citizenship program. Definitely worth considering.


The best citizenship by investment programs

The bureaucracy involved in the process of getting Vanuatu citizenship can easily get overwhelming, so that is something to bear in mind if you’re thinking of applying.

I recently spent a week in Vanuatu and am sure that the country offers the world’s most confusing citizenship by investment program. It was interesting how, three days after arriving on Vanuatu soil, a group of local experts had invited me to their boardroom to ask what I thought of their passport program. My review was not good.

There are various donation options and even the most seasoned of expats with their ear to the ground don’t really understand how they work. Basically, you can expect to spend about $250,000 when you count the government donation and agent fees payable to a local ni-Vanuatu.

Vanuatu passports are one of three economic citizenships that offer visa-free travel to Russia, and also offer the standard access to the United Kingdom, Ireland, and more recently Europe. However, they are not good for travel to most of the Americas or even Australia in their own backyard.

In my opinion, which is shared by others in the field, the biggest challenge for Vanuatu is its ever-changing requirements and unclear policies on what is essentially an honorary citizenship.

VERDICT: I like Vanuatu and see potential for frontier market investors and on-the-ground residency seekers, but the passport program is overpriced and too confusing. The lure of being isolated geographically and hence different from Caribbean programs doesn’t sway me.


The best citizenship by investment programs

Turkey initially overestimated the value of its passport, but has since made changes.

In January 2017, Turkey introduced an economic citizenship program in an effort to prop up their beleaguered economy. This was shortly after the Turkish lira plunged to an all-time low against the US dollar and ongoing acts of terrorism had driven Istanbul real estate sales to fresh lows. In an effort to woo investors again, Turkey’s government decided to offer citizenship to millionaire investors.

The offer was simple: invest $1 million in real estate and get citizenship. The only real caveat was a title deed restriction forcing you to own the real estate for three years before selling it. It was in some cases even possible to escape VAT on your property purchase, minimizing sunk costs.

Other options included investing $2 million into a capital expenditure, or merely depositing $3 million in a Turkish bank, or hiring 100 workers. Each of these these investments should be held for three years.

With the Turkish lira hitting even fresher lows in 2018, interest rates are high if you can stand the volatility. However, the government saw little interest in its fledgling citizenship program, and agreed to dramatically lower the price on the real estate option to $300,000, making it a worthy contender.

I was clear from the beginning that this program targeted mostly Arabs seeking an Islamic safe haven, but the price reduction may make it interesting to more people.

VERDICT: Turkey’s program is interesting in that, like Cyprus, you stand a decent chance to get your money back and even turn a profit on its economic citizenship offering. A Turkish passport can come in handy as part of a passport portfolio (something I help people create), but I still think it’s not enough on its own.


What’s the absolute best economic citizenship program? As with anything else, it depends on your needs. For most people I work with, a fast-track residency program is better than “buying” citizenship outright, but if you’re in a hurry, I’d focus on Malta, Dominica, and St. Lucia, or…

Other economic citizenship options

The programs here are “off the shelf” options available to pretty much everybody, save for the Iraqi citizen who most countries will subject to extra screening.

Depending on your situation, there may be other options. Do you have a business that can create local jobs? Are you a real estate investor willing to invest in a large project? Are you a US citizen?

If you want a nearly 100% guarantee of getting citizenship in 4-12 months, the programs above are best for you. If you prefer to invest less — or if you believe you have other benefits you can bring to a country besides just a checkbook — there are a few of countries that offer conditional economic citizenship.

If you are an entrepreneur or investor looking for other legal alternatives, feel free to contact me for help.

The key to getting a second passport is making sure you do so legally, so it’s important to avoid scam-my programs that avoid paying off corrupt officials. Any citizenship program you take part in should be referenced in that country’s laws; if the person promoting a program can’t show you the legal basis for your citizenship, steer clear.

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Andrew Henderson

Andrew Henderson

Andrew has been internationalizing since 2008, and has learned what works and what doesn't work when it comes to reducing taxes, increasing personal freedom, and creating wealth. Click here to work with him personally.
Andrew Henderson